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为什么盐酸的最大浓度只有 37%?

溶解及程度: 两种液体能不能互溶从微观的角度讲就是A-B之间的作用力与A-A,B-B这两种作用力的关系。差距越大溶解度就越低,可以参考这里@金晨羽A在B中溶解度是a, 能否求得B在A中的溶解度?的回答。汽油是烷烃的混合物,烷烃是非极性分子,水是极性分子。硫酸是极性分子,而且结构上有一定的相似性,比如都有 -O-H 这样的基团。根据相似相溶的道理(为什么相似相溶,百度百科相似相溶_百度百科 讲的很详细了),硫酸的溶解于水的能力要远远的强于汽油了。溶解和电离: 水溶液中,简单理解为电离是溶解的下一步。电离时先把分子拆开变成离子,然后和水分子作用生成水合离子。前一步吸热,后一步放热。这是物质溶于水有的吸热有的放热的原因。放热的物质也具有更强的吸湿性(硫酸,NaOH)。气夜固相的平衡: 对于固体溶解一般考虑固液平衡,气体或者液体的互溶考虑气液平衡。对盐酸来说,考虑水和水蒸气的平衡,水中溶解的HCl和气体HCl的平衡;硫酸和硝酸同样。这样就体现出差别了,硫酸的挥发性最差,气象分压相同时溶液中的浓度就最高了,然后硝酸次之,盐酸最差。为什么常用的浓硫酸是98%: 其实更准确的浓度是98.3%。 这玩意的最大浓度可以超过100%,叫做发烟硫酸,硫酸里面溶解了三氧化硫(发烟硫酸_百度百科 )。比如商品化的发烟硫酸105硫酸(硫酸-104.5% 发烟硫酸 105%发烟硫酸(买家须持证购买!仅供内销) 。 当然,也有纯的100%硫酸,但是工业上生产时是在高温下生产的。纯的硫酸沸点290°C,高温下不如338°C沸点的共沸物(共沸混合物 )稳定(硫酸_百度百科 )。 常用的98.3%的浓硫酸其实是这个共沸物的浓度。为什么硝酸是68-69%: 硝酸也有纯的,纯硝酸为无色液体,沸点83℃,在-42℃时凝结为无色晶体(硝酸 )。 我们常用的和硫酸类似,也是和水的共沸物,浓度69.2%,沸点121.6°C。 这货也有发烟版的,是溶有NO2的浓硝酸,浓度在86%~97.5%(发烟硝酸_百度百科 )。没有发烟硫酸那么吓人。盐酸为什么是37%: 说实在的我真没找到。看样子一时半会填不上了~~~~ 但是37%的盐酸粗略(真的是粗略的估算)算大概是1体积水溶解了400体积左右的HCL,没有达到常温常压下500:1的溶解度。所以有更浓的。 它也有和水的共沸物,110 °C,20.2%。水溶液最高浓度是43.4%。氯化氢_百度百科 如果把温度降下来看固态,还有更“浓”的。看图: 

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这些东西分别是HCl·H2O (68% HCl), HCl·2H2O (51% HCl), HCl·3H2O (41% HCl), HCl·6H2O (25% HCl), H2O(0% HCl)。Hydrochloric acid 到这里,题主的问题其实是不对的,常态下盐酸的最大浓度不是37%,有更浓的。---------------------------------------再改一下,这次中文维基给力了,这里有另一个相图(盐酸 ): 

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可以看出43.4%的盐酸要接近0°C才会有。37%的浓盐酸大约是40°C的饱和溶液。
作者:段昊 

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